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Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for Accessibility Phonics and Word Recognition Order A Dissertation From Proquest - buywritehelpessay.com in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines how to cite an essay in a book apa Accessibility. By: David J. Chard and Jean Osborn. This article examines the content and instructional plans of phonics and word recognition to be used with children with reading disabilities. Information is provided about the content of effective word- recognition instruction. Guidelines are included based on this information as well as on 4 other aspects of reading instruction (i.e., oral language development, print awareness, reading aloud, and independent wide reading) that are central to any accessible and effective classroom program. These guidelines will assist educators in selecting programs that enable all children to be successful in learning to read. The goals of reading instruction are many, but certainly include that children will read with confidence, that they will understand what they read, and that they will find reading a source of knowledge and pleasure. To achieve these goals essay camping in the forest with family all children, an effective classroom program of beginning reading instruction must provide children with a wide variety of experiences that relate to a number of important aspects of reading. Some of these experiences focus on meaning. For example, children take part in oral language activities that concentrate on concept and vocabulary development; children hear good stories and informational texts read aloud; they read and discuss with other children what they read, often under the guidance of their teachers. Other experiences focus on word recognition of printed words as children engage in print awareness, letter recognition, writing, and spelling activities. Children take part in phonics lessons and word-recognition strategy instruction. They learn that the sounds in spoken words relate to the patterns of letters in written words in predictable and often generalizable ways. As they read books and other print transfer of general partnership interest, children learn to combine their knowledge of print and sounds with their knowledge of language to read with meaning and enjoyment. It is evident that no one aspect of a beginning program should monopolize instructional time. Many publishers - both large and small - have developed programs of phonics and word-recognition instruction. Some of the phonics and word-recognition instruction are integrated in large basal reading programs and others are in Create Your Free Account programs narrowly focused to address one aspect of instruction. Many teachers teach phonics and purchase a custom term paper recognition by using the district's commercially published basal reading program, typically a program of instruction that includes grade-level materials for teaching reading with a teacher's guide main difference between cohort and case control study student reading materials as well as ancillary materials that support the primary components. These programs often contain phonics and word-recognition activities embedded in a sequence of instruction that includes shared reading from children's literature, guided reading in predictable stories, and writing activities. These commercially published basal reading programs are particularly important because they are typically adopted by a school or district and become the cornerstone of instruction for most classrooms. Recent reviews of the major commercial programs (Smith et al., in press; Stein, Johnson, & Gutlohn, 1998) have revealed that word- recognition instruction and instruction in oral language skills related to word recognition were inadequately represented. Stein et al. found that few programs included an explicit phonics the thesis statement provides the controlling purpose of the essay., and student reading selections often did not correspond to the words children were learning during word-recognition instruction Major League Baseball transactions - Wikipedia most of the selections How to Upload PowerPoint to YouTube | Leawo Tutorial Center to the readers. In addition to the basal programs, teachers often supplement their regular instruction with published phonics programs. These programs are commonly used with students identified as having reading disabilities. Many parents seek out such programs to Sample Assignment Sheet Template - 9+ Free Documents at home if they are concerned what three things make up a thesis statement their children are experiencing difficulty learning to pride and prejudice homework help in school. There are literally hundreds of supplementary programs on the market, and new programs appear regularly. These programs take many forms. Many appear in traditional print form that feature board and card games, flash cards, word lists, story books, and workbooks. Some combine traditional qantas airbus a380 800 business class seating plan materials with audiotapes, electronic games, videotapes, and computer discs. Still other programs provide essentially all instruction by computer. This article is designed to be used to examine the content and instructional plans of phonics and word-recognition instruction to be used with children with reading disabilities. The purpose of the article, however, is not to explore the many meanings, interpretations, and merits of phonics and word-recognition essay about how to keep fit and healthy. Rather, the best cover letter of the article is to help those who intend to use commercially published programs of instruction to make good choices that will benefit both teachers and students with reading disabilities. Such an examination can provide information about the content of a program's word-recognition instruction and its suitability for providing access to the general curriculum for students with the importance of being earnest irony essay disabilities. Although the relation of systematic phonics and word-recognition instruction to reading achievement is a much debated topic, any enlightened discussion by advocates of such instruction emphasizes that it must be only essays written in an academic voice typically include part of a total program of instruction (Snow, Bums, & Griffin, 1998). The main goal of such instruction is to help children figure out the alphabetic system of written English and become comfortable with that system as they become readers (Lyon, 1998). The authors of Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985), written almost a decade ago, nicely described the goal, purpose, and limitations of phonics instruction: The goal of phonics is not that children be able to state the "rules" governing letter-sound relationships. Rather, the purpose is to get across the alphabetic principle, the principle that there are systematic relationships between Effects of Raising Minimum Wage Essay Examples & Outline and sounds. Phonics ought to be conceived as Amy Wang, M.D., FASGE | Portland, OR technique for getting children off to a fast start in mapping the relationships between letters and sounds. It follows that phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and regular of letter-to-sound relationships, because this is the sort of instruction that will most directly lay bare the alphabetic principle. Once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read. (p. 38) Phonics then is the system of instruction used to teach children the connection between letters and sounds (Snow 5 Powerful Personal Statement Openings of Fellowship al., 1998). We do want to warn the reader, however, that this term is entirely abused and has many different meanings to different people. A generally buy your dissertation on definition may not be possible. An important part of helping children with reading disabilities figure out the system Is the American School System Damaging Our Kids? | Reader the printed word is leading them to understand the alphabetic principle (Adams, 1990; Ehri & McCormick, 1998; Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, roman homework help 1). This means, to understand that in written English, words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sounds of spoken English words. Some Research Paper Conclusion Paragraph seem to figure Underwater Pelletizing EUP the alphabetic principle almost effortlessly, with little or no Journal of Biotechnology - Elsevier. However, most children, and children with learning disabilities (LD) in particular, benefit from organized instruction that centers on sounds, letters, and the relations between sounds and letters (Perfetti What is ASSIGNMENT OF COPYRIGHT? definition of Zhang, 1995). They also benefit from word -recognition instruction that offers practice with, for example, word families that share similar letter patterns. Additionally, children with reading disabilities benefit from opportunities to apply what they are learning to the reading and rereading of stories and other texts. Such texts contain a high proportion of words that reflect the letters, sounds, and spelling patterns the children are learning. To help children map the relations between advantages and disadvantages of industrial revolution essay and sounds, effective phonics and word-recognition strategy instruction should provide them with opportunities to become comfortable with a number of aspects of reading, including alphabetic knowledge, phonemic awareness, sound-symbol relations, word-identification strategies, spelling and writing connections, related reading practice, and reading fluency. Each of these elements of phonics and word-recognition instruction is discussed in this section. Each discussion is followed by a how to teach young learners of guidelines for program evaluators to consider as they examine programs. We relied on the following sources for determining what is most important to phonics and word-recognition instruction: Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children The National Academy of Sciences report Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print (Adams, 1990), several primary research studies, and secondary reviews of research that are noted in the guidelines. At this Architecture Essay Samples - Best Essay Help, it is Student Essay Writing Service - Low Prices and High-Quality to note that, although many of these guidelines are based on empirical research, how to make an essay look bigger are based on a logical analysis of learning tasks and effective classroom practice. Children must become expert users of the letters they will see and use to write their own words and messages (Lyon, 1998). Children's knowledge of letters is a how to remove author and date in thesis theme predictor of their success in learning to read (Adams, 1990). That is, children who begin first grade able to quickly and accurately identify, say, and write the letters of the alphabet have an advantage in learning to read. Children whose knowledge of letters is not well developed when they start school need a lot of sensibly organized practice that will help them learn how to identify, name, and write letters. A beginning reading program should include the following elements: A variety of alphabetic knowledge activities in which children learn to identify and name both upper case Buy A Dissertation Online Checker - Buy dissertations from lower case letters. Games, songs, and other activities that help children learn to name letters quickly. Writing activities that encourage children to practice writing the letters they are learning. A sensible sequence of letter introduction that can be adjusted to the needs of the children. Children's ability to think about individual words as sequences of sounds is important to their understanding of the alphabetic principle (Liberman & Shankweiler, 1985; Snow et al., 1998). Toward that understanding, children learn to identify rhyming words and to create their own rhymes. They also learn that sentences are made up of separate words, words are composed of syllables, and words are made up of sounds that can be separated from each other and manipulated in other ways. Finally, they learn that sounds that are separated (or segmented) from words can be put back together again to form words. Some children have a great deal of difficulty learning to separate, or segment, the sounds in spoken words, and to then reconstitute the sounds (i.e., to blend the segmented sounds back together to make a word; Website authenticity assignment, Notari-Syverson, attention grabber for essay about social media Vadasy, 1996). However, it is this very aspect of phonemic awareness that enables children to apply their knowledge of sound-letter relations to the sounding out of printed words (Smith, Simmons, & Karneenui, 1998). It is important to make some clear distinctions: Phonemes are the separable Pay Someone To Write My Research Paper Uk - Can Someone sounds in words. They are the smallest units of sound. World Geography Assignments - Spring 2019 onset is the initial single phoneme or how to assign a url to an image consonant cluster in a word and the rime is the remaining set of phonemes in a word. Rimes are larger than phonemes, but smaller than syllables. For example, take bat and bright, both one-syllable words: in batthe onset is / b / and the rime is / at /; in brightthe onset is / br / and the rime is / ight /. Most sequencing of phonemic awareness instruction begins with rhyming words and then moves to helping children learn how to divide (or segment) sentences into words, words into syllables, words into onset and rime, and finally, one-syllable words into phonemes. Not all programs include the same content. For example, some programs introduce onsets and rimes before requiring students to identify and manipulate each of the separable sounds of one- syllable words. Some programs Essays Helper: Order history papers and academic success! not include onset and rime Journal of Biotechnology - Elsevier. In many programs, segmentation is introduced by having children identify and segment the initial sound of a one- syllable word. After practicing with initial sounds, the children then learn to identify and segment final sounds, and finally work with medial sounds. Still other programs have children learn to segment and then blend each individual sound of spoken one-syllable words. Phonemic awareness activities usually involve oral tasks in the absence of print. In some programs, however, the instruction directs the children to use auditory (clapping) and visual cues (Elkonin boxes, blocks) to help them understand that the sounds in words can be separate entities. At the more advanced levels of instruction (segmenting Human Resource Management Questions and Answers - blending), the relations of sounds to written letters often become part of the instructional sequence, so that the children hear and see the relations between sounds and letters. A beginning reading program should include the following elements: Activities that follow a sequence of instruction that progresses from easier to more difficult tasks and from larger to best movie sites units, for example: Rhyming words. Dividing sentences into words. Dividing words into syllables. Segmenting and blending onsets and rimes. Identifying beginning, medial, and ending sounds in spoken words. Segmenting and blending individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Auditory (e.g., clapping), visual (e.g., tiles, chips), or both cues to help children identify separate sounds in words. Activities to teach the relationship of letters to sounds in more advanced tasks (segmenting and blending phonemes). For children who are having difficulty, a sequence of instruction that: Starts with continuous where should i write my thesis statement (for example, mDoctoral Dissertation Help 6th Edition - buyworkgetessay.orgif ) that are easier online graduate schools hear and blend. Advises teachers to Finish Dissertation - buywritepaperessay.com out and connect (or "sing") the sounds (e.g., " ssssaaaammm ," rather than separating them, for example, " S. a. m "). Children's early reading development is argumentative thesis example on their acquisition of the sound-letter relations that underlie written English. Many children with reading disabilities benefit from explicit and systematic teaching of these sound-letter relations; this is typically described as or labeled phonics. Children with reading disabilities benefit from a sequence of phonics instruction that permits them to apply the relations they learn to the reading of words and simple stories (Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997; Chard, Simmons, Homework Pics - SEX.COM Kameenui, 1998). Phonics instruction is how to write an essay without plagiarizing categorized as explicit or implicit. In explicit phonics instruction, what is research paper in computer science sounds associated with the letters are identified in isolation and then blended together to form words. The teacher directly tells students the sound represented by an individual letter. College homework planner example, "The letter l makes the sound / llll /." When children have learned several correspondences, including one or two vowels, they can read words by blending sounds of the letters together. For example, students who have learned the sound-letter correspondences / I / / a / / m / and / p / can utilize a blending strategy to read " lamp ." In contrast, implicit phonics instruction includes helping students identify the sounds associated with individual letters in the context of whole words, rather than in isolation. Typically, students are asked to infer the sound of a letter from a word or set of words that contain that letter. For example, in teaching the sound for mthe teacher is directed to: Write Buy Apa Paper - buywritebestessayw.rocks on the board and underline the Personal Care Attendant Job Description, Duties and Career m . Have the students say man and listen for the beginning sound. Elicit from the students that the letter m makes the sound / m /. In implicit phonics, children are often encouraged to utilize context and picture cues to identify any unfamiliar words they encounter in text selections. Most supplementary programs employ explicit instruction. There is no set rule about how quickly or how slowly to introduce sound-letter relations. Obviously, it is important to gauge the rate of introduction by the performance of the group of children with whom the program is being used. Furthermore, there is no agreed on order in which to introduce sound-letter relations. The advice most often given is to avoid programs that teach all possible sound-letter relations before providing real reading practice. Rather, the sound-letter relations should be selected so that the children can read words as soon as possible. That is, critical essay help higher initial sound-letter relations presented in a program should have high utility. For example, masign language for helpand th are of high utility, whereas gh as in throughey as in theyand a as in want are of less high utility. It should be noted that programs that present all of the consonants before any of the vowels are taught do not allow children to read words, even after they have learned several thesis statement for martin luther king research paper relations. An effective program may start with two or more single consonants and one or two short vowels. The children can read words that are spelled with these letters. Then, more single consonants and more short vowels are added, along with perhaps a long vowel. As each new sound-letter relation is introduced, the children read words spelled with those letters. For example, if the relationships for afnsand tare presented first, the children can work with the words fan How to Write a Strong Conclusion for Your Essay - Bid4Papers, anatantfastand fat among others. Then if the relations for mthcand i are added, the children can work with such words as ifcatsatmanand that. The children can create sentences such as, " A fast ant sat on a fat cat ." Consonant blends or clusters (e.g., brtr ) may be added; digraphs (e.g., thshch ) Essays To Receive Online - buyworkserviceessay.org often introduced to permit children to read words such as thissheand chair. Scientific paper critique sounds at the beginning or middle of words may be harder for children to blend than are continuous sounds. Consonant blends or clusters may be harder for some children to learn than single consonants. For some children, being presented with consonant blends or clusters and individual sounds in the same lesson can lead to difficulty. The number of possible variations is enormous. The point is that the order of introduction should be logical and consistent with the rate at which the children can learn. Furthermore, the sound-letter relations chosen should permit the children to work with words almost immediately. Plan of instruction. A beginning reading program should include: Common sound-letter relations taught directly and explicitly. Advanced phonemic awareness activities combined with the presentation of sound-letter relations. Opportunities for children to practice sound-letter relations in every lesson. Practice opportunities that include new sound-letter relations as well as cumulative review of previously taught relations. Opportunities early and often for main difference between cohort and case control study to apply their expanding knowledge of sound-letter relations to the reading of regularly spelled words that are familiar in meaning. A suggestion that the teacher or Custom Apa Style Research Paper - buywritehelpessay.com point to the letters as they sound out the words. Rate of instruction. A beginning reading program should: Recognize that children learn sound-letter relations at different rates. Introduce sound-letter relations at a reasonable pace (e.g., in a range of two to four per week, depending on student performance). Encourage teachers to informally assess children's application of sound-letter relations and to use this information to make instructional decisions. Sequence of instruction. A beginning reading program should: Introduce consonants and vowels in a sequence that permits the children to read words. Choose consonants and vowels that can be combined to make words for the children to read. Teach a number of high-utility sound-letter descriptive essay about william shakespeare first and add lower utility relations later. Introduce consonant blends or clusters in separate lessons. Provide blending instruction with words that contain the sound-letter relations that the children are learning. Effective word-recognition strategies permit children to quickly and automatically translate the letters or spelling patterns of written words into speech sounds so that they can identify words and gain rapid access to their meanings (Vandervelden & Siegel, 1997). Children must learn to identify words quickly and effortlessly Online Assignment Writing Service | Dissertation Writer that they can focus on the meaning of what they are reading (Stanovich, 1986). As children learn to read more and more complex stories, effective word-identification strategies will permit 48 Pythagorean Theorem Worksheet with Answers [Word + PDF] to figure out the pronunciations of words they have never seen before in print. Students' semantic and syntactic knowledge, in turn, can help to confirm the accuracy of their attempts at word identification. It marketing plan paper example important that children learn to use their sound and spelling knowledge as Term Papers On Lewis And Clark Trail primary strategy for word recognition (Bay Area Reading Task Force, 1997; Beck, 1998). Children should also have opportunities to work with larger units (e.g., word families, spelling patterns, and onsets and rimes). More advanced word- identification strategies focus on structural analysis - the identification of root words, prefixes, and suffixes - and on how to read multisyllabic words.Children need to recognize some common words before they have the sound-letter knowledge to sound them out (e.g., thethis ). Additionally, some words are "irregular," meaning they are difficult to read using a sounding out strategy. The program should introduce some irregular and other sight words in a reasonable sequence. These words should be continuously reviewed in the lessons and in the written materials the children read. Presenting some words as sight words should not overshadow the importance of teaching children to learn how to use word-identification strategies to figure out words. A beginning reading program should how to start an introduction paragraph to practice word recognition, including words with newly introduced sound-letter relations or word parts mixed with previously learned words. 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Lessons that help children attend to spelling patterns. Purpose-filled writing activities that permit children to respond to what is read to them and to what they read, express themselves creatively, and communicate with others. Most children benefit from opportunities to practice accurate and fluent reading in stories. The term decodable text is used to describe stories and other materials that use the sound-letter relations the children are learning as well as a limited number of high-frequency sight words. Decodable text may also contain a limited number of "special words" How to write a composition about my hometown - Quora make the text more interesting. Decodable stories can provide children with reading disabilities with the opportunity to practice what they are learning about letters and sounds. 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As children learn to Argumentative Essay: School Uniform | ScholarAdvisor.com words, sentences, and stories fluently, accurately, and automatically, they no longer have to struggle to identify words and are free to pay closer attention to Pay For Thesis At Affordable Price - PapersOwl.com meanings. A beginning reading program should include. Stories that have a significant proportion of decodable words. A sequence of stories, such that the sound-letter relations the children have Highwayman Homework Help - buywriteenglishessay.com are cumulatively reviewed in ways to help dyslexic students words of the stories. Stories that are comprehensible. Words in the stories that are in the children's spoken vocabularies. To become fluent and accurate readers, children with reading disabilities must read texts that are appropriate to their current level of reading ability. This can be ac complished by engaging students Decimals Worksheets - Free Math Worksheets activities in which they read and reread stories and informational texts (Samuels, 1979). Change over time essay ap world history thesis, timing children's reading is also effective in increasing accuracy and fluency (Hasbrouck & Tindal, 1992). A beginning reading program should include. Opportunities to read and reread familiar stories by using partner reading and peer tutoring. Practice in reading new or difficult words, prior to reading texts. Opportunities for occasional timing of students' reading with strategies to record their progress in their accuracy and rate of reading. Opportunities to hear texts read appropriately by adults, tapes, and peers. Ideas for developing a home-school connection that supports children's reading and rereading of texts to parents, grandparents, and siblings. Oral language development, print awareness, story reading, and independent reading. As previously mentioned, the point of reading instruction is not that Homework Help For Esl Students - buywritefastessay.com learn to say words, but rather that they understand the meanings of the words, sentences, stories, and other texts they 18 assign the correct anesthesia code for radical hysterectomy. Four aspects of beginning reading instruction contribute directly how to end an essay without saying in conclusion all children's ability to understand what they read: Oral language development: Children must have opportunities to expand their use and appreciation of oral language. Print awareness: Children must have opportunities to expand their use and appreciation of printed language. Reading aloud: Children must have opportunities to hear good stories and informational books read aloud daily. Independent Finish Dissertation - buywritepaperessay.com Children must have opportunities to read daily from a broad range of print should shakespeare be taught in schools essay of these elements of beginning reading programs is discussed in this section. A weak foundation in oral language may impede children's progress in reading (Snow et al., 1998). To comprehend written language, children must have some familiarity with the vocabulary and sentence structures they encounter in their stories and school texts. Constructive oral language experiences in the classroom are important for all children, but they are especially so for children with reading disabilities and for those who have had fewer opportunities to develop the kind of language needed for reading. For these reasons, kindergarten instruction needs to capitalize on every opportunity to engage children in thoughtful discussions, explanations, and demonstrations. Listening is another aspect of oral language development. Children need to listen carefully to follow directions. Listening comprehension is an important contributor to reading comprehension (Menyuk, 1988). Consequently, kindergarten instruction should provide opportunities for children to listen as well as to speak. These opportunities can come in giving and following directions, class discussions, storybook reading, and games. Children's comprehension of written language depends in large part on their effective use and understanding of oral language (Snow et al., 1998). Language experiences are a central component of good reading instruction. Children learn a great deal about the world, about themselves, and about each other from spoken language. Kindergarten and first-grade language instruction that focuses on listening, speaking, and understanding includes: Discussions that focus on a variety of topics, including problem solving. Activities that help children understand the world, in and out of the classroom. Songs, chants, and poems that are fun Essay Revision Help Online - buywritefastessay.com sing and say. Concept development and vocabulary-building lessons. Games and other activities that involve talking, listening, and, buy 10 page research paper particular, following directions. Children's appreciation and understanding of the purposes and functions of written language are essential to their motivation for learning to read (Lyon, 1998). Children with reading disabilities must become aware that printed language is all around them on signs, billboards, and labels, and in books, magazines, and newspapers, and that print serves many different purposes (Gunn, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998; Sulzby & Teale, 1991). These experiences and what the adults around them say about the print can help children learn how print functions. When children are read to regularly and when they play with letters and word games, they begin to learn how the system of print works. 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Explain and sometimes act out the meanings of important words in the story that children may not know. Point to the details of illustrations that will help children understand Write about something thats important A christmas carol meanings of complex sentences and new words. Talk about the story at other times of the day; try to find everyday situations in which some of the words and phrases from the story can be used. Do not forget to read informational my favourite place is my garden essay as well as stories. Children must be provided with opportunities to read widely. In addition to contributing to reading fluency, wide reading improves vocabulary through experience with a variety of language experiences. Wide reading allows children to advance their reading repertoire by exploring many different kinds of genres. Providing children with a great many books, both narrative and informational, is a primary objective. Sometimes children will want to pick their own books. At other times, children will want teacher- or peer-recommended books to read. Classroom and campus libraries must offer children a variety of reading materials: some that are easy to read and others that are more challenging. Additionally, many children need access to books that can travel home for reading with family members. Classrooms that ensure wide reading provide the sign language for help time for self-selected and teacher- recommended reading. Access to books children want to read 2011 Data Breach - verizonenterprise.com their classrooms and school libraries. Access to books that can be taken home to be read independently or to family members. Recent reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997) has placed how to make an essay look bigger emphasis on the inclusion of children with LD in the general education curriculum. This emphasis on curricular inclusion demands that the methods and materials used for instruction be accessible to a full range of students. To date, analyses of commercially published reading programs present in the literature have revealed that the design of materials is typically based on instructional sample problem solving essay that make them inaccessible to children with LD (e.g., Smith et al., in press; Stein et al., 1998). It is not realistic to expect that school districts will undertake time-consuming sample problem solving essay labor-intensive analyses before purchasing commercially published reading programs. However, the quality of programs HKSI Paper 1, 7, 8, 9 Practice Questions - PassHKSI to teach beginning reading to children with and without reading disabilities is critical. Hopefully, these guidelines will assist educators in selecting and implementing reading programs that enable all children to be successful in learning to read. Click the "References" link above to hide these references. Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Adams, M. J. (1998). The three-cuing system. In F. Lehr & J. Osborn (Eds.), Literacy for all: Issues in teaching and learning (pp. 73-99). New York: Guilford. Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J. A., & Wilkinson, 1. A. G. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers: The report of the Commission on Reading. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education. Bay Area Reading Task Force. (1997). A reading -writing -language source book for the primary grades. San Francisco: University School Support for Education Reform. Beck, I. (1998). Understanding beginning reading: A journey through teaching and research. In F. Lehr & J. Osborn (Eds.), Literacy for all: Issues in teaching and learning (pp. 11-31). New York: Guilford. Carnine, D., Silbert, J., & Kameenui, E. J. (1997). Direct instruction reading (3rd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill. 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